CONTENTS

1                      Introduction   1

1.1                   BACKGROUND

1.2                   PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT

1.3                   STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT

2                      POST PROJECT CORAL MONITORING Survey Methodology   3

2.1                   MONITORING LOCATIONS

2.2                  METHODOLOGY

3                      Post project Coral Monitoring Survey Results   8

3.1                  INTRODUCTION

3.2                  REA SURVEY RESULTS

3.3                  RESULTS OF CORAL COLONY MONITORING   8   9   19

4                      Conclusion   27

 

ANNEXES

Annex A          Photographic Records from the Post-Project Coral Monitoring conducted in February 2014

Annex B          Photographic Records from the 2013 Baseline Update Monitoring conducted in November 2013

Annex C          Data including Photographic Records from the 2013 Post-Project Monitoring conducted in February 2013

Annex D          Data including Photographic Records from the 2012 Baseline Survey conducted in September 2012

 

 

1                                             Introduction

1.1                                      Background

In January, 2013, NTT Com Asia (NTTCA) installed a telecommunication cable (Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE) cable) approximately 7,200 km in length, connecting Japan and Singapore with branches to the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR (HKSAR) and Malaysia Marine works for the cable installation was completed in January 2013.  The landing site is located at a new Beach Manhole (BMH) and the cable was ultimately connected with a Data Centre in Tseung Kwan O (TKO) Industrial Estate.  From Tseung Kwan O, the cable extends westward approaching the Tathong Channel.  Near to Cape Collinson, the cable is approximately parallel to the Tathong Channel until north of Waglan Island where the cable travels eastward to the boundary of HKSAR waters where it enters the South China Sea.  The total length of cable in Hong Kong SAR waters is approximately 33.5 km.  A map of the cable route is presented in Figure 1.1.

A Project Profile (PP-452/2011) which includes an assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the installation of the submarine telecommunications cable system was prepared and submitted to the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) under section 5.(1)(b) and 5.(11) of the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) for the application for Permission to apply directly for Environmental Permit (EP).  The Environmental Protection Department, subsequently issued an Environmental Permit (EP- 433/2011) for the Project.  In accordance with the EP conditions, an environmental monitoring and audit (EM&A) programme is required to be implemented in order to track the environmental performance of the cable installation works of the Project.

Pursuant to Condition 2.4 of the EP, an environmental monitoring and audit (EM&A) programme, as set out in the Environmental Monitoring and Audit Manual (EM&A Manual) ([1]), was required for this Project.  Baseline data were collected prior to the start of cable installation works in 2012 and monitoring and audit were conducted throughout the cable installation and after its completion in early 2013 as required in the EM&A Manual. 

Upon inspection in October 2013 the ASE cable was found to be damaged and a section within Zone A (see Figure 2.1) required re-installation.  The EM&A programme was therefore required to resume for the cable installation works in Hong Kong Waters (the “Project”) and the EM&A Manual was updated to reflect these new repair works.  A new coral monitoring baseline survey (Baseline Update) was carried out prior to the installation of the faulty section of cable in November, 2013. 

In accordance with the Updated EM&A Manual, a Post Project Coral Survey should be conducted within one month after completion of the marine works in order to determine any detectable changes in coral conditions which may have been caused by the cable repair works that were only carried out in January and February 2014 in Zone A (Cape Collinson).

1.2                                      Purpose of this Report

This Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey Report (“the Report”) has been prepared by ERM-Hong Kong, Limited (ERM) on behalf of NTTCA to present the methodology and findings of the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey conducted in February 2014, after the completion of the marine works for the cable repair works of the Project. 

1.3                                      Structure of the Report

The remainder of the report is structured as follows:

Section 2: Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey Methodology

Presents the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey methodology, parameters monitored, monitoring locations and depth in accordance with the Updated EM&A Manual.

Section 3: Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey Results

Reviews the condition and health status of corals at the monitoring station surveyed during the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey and comparison with previous survey information in order to determine if any detectable changes have occurred between monitoring events.

Section 4: Conclusion

Presents a discussion of the results, comparison to previous surveys and conclusions/recommendations.

2                                             POST PROJECT CORAL MONITORING Survey Methodology

This section presents the methodology of the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey conducted in February 2014, which follows that of the original Baseline Survey. 

2.1                                      Monitoring Locations

The following monitoring locations, shown in Figure 2.1, were surveyed during the 2012 Baseline and 2013 Post-Project Monitoring.  Only Zone A was surveyed during the 2013 Baseline Update Survey due to the adverse weather condition and surges at sea.

 

Monitoring Stations:

§   Zone A: Cape Collinson; and

§   Zone B: Tai Long Pai.

Control Station:

§   Zone C: Tung Lung Chau.

During the February 2014 Post Project Coral Monitoring, however, only Zones A and C were surveyed due to adverse conditions.  It should be noted that the repair works were only carried out in Zone A (Cape Collinson). 

2.2                                      Methodology

Subtidal dive surveys were undertaken at Zones A and C, where Zone A lies in close proximity to the Project Area and focusses on the section of cable route to be replaced, and Zone C is considered as the Control Station.  The survey included the following two components:

§   Semi-quantitative Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) survey; and

§   Coral Colony Monitoring.

Each of these surveys is described further in the following sections. 

Rapid Ecological Assessment Survey Method

A standardised semi-quantitative REA survey technique was used to investigate the general conditions of the coral communities--including any scleractinian (hard), alcyonacian (soft) and antipitharian (black) corals found--associated with subtidal hard bottom habitat at survey site.  The REA technique allows collection of semi-quantitative information on the ecological attributes of the subtidal habitat in a relatively simple way without compromising scientific rigour.  This technique is the standard practice for EIA and EM&A marine ecological surveys in Hong Kong and has been modified from the standardised REA survey technique established for the assessment of coral communities on the Great Barrier Reef ([2]) for marine environment of Hong Kong ([3]).

The Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey was conducted by the same qualified coral ecologist who was used for the Baseline Update Survey and had been approved by AFCD in advance of undertaking the monitoring work.  An REA survey was carried out by means of SCUBA with the aim of recording the condition of existing substratum, estimating the diversity and relative abundance of coral assemblages (ie hard corals, octocorals and black corals) and identification of coral taxa (hard corals identified to species level while octocorals and black corals recorded to genus level).  The survey was undertaken along a transect placed onto the seabed following a specific depth contour.  Only Zones A and C were surveyed; conditions at Zone B was observed to be too dangerous to conduct the survey work, and thus that site was abandoned.  Six transects with length of 100 m each were surveyed at each site, Zone A and Zone C.  The twelve transects surveyed were also divided between depth regions:

§  Shallow depth region: -2 to -5 m CD (typically the depth range of hard coral colonies associated with subtidal hard bottom habitat); and

§  Deep depth region: -5 to -15 m CD.

Following the laying of the transect line, coral specialists swam along the transect and conducted the REA survey.  The REA methodology encompassed an assessment of the benthic cover (Tier I) and taxon abundance (Tier II) undertaken in a swathe ~ 1-m wide, 0.5 m either side of each transect, due to visibility limitations.  Further explanation of the two assessment tiers implemented during the survey is presented below.

Tier I – Categorisation of Benthic Cover

Upon the completion of observation along each survey transect, five ecological and seven substratum attributes were assigned to one of seven standard ranked (ordinal) categories (Tables 2.1 and 2.2).

Table 2.1        Categories used in the REA Surveys – Benthic Attributes

Ecological

Substratum

Hard coral

Hard Substratum

Dead standing coral

Continuous pavement

Soft coral

Bedrock

Black coral

Rubble

Macroalgae

Sand

Turf Algae

Silt

 

Large boulders (>50 cm)

 

Small boulders (<50 cm)

 

Rocks (<26 cm)

 

Table 2.2        Categories used in the REA Surveys – Ordinal Ranks of Percentage Cover

Rank

Percentage Cover (%)

0

None recorded

1

1-5

2

6-10

3

11-30

4

31-50

5

51-75

6

76-100

Tier II – Taxonomic Inventories to Define Types of Benthic Communities

An inventory of benthic taxa was also compiled for each transect.  Taxa were identified in situ to the following levels:

§  Scleractinian (hard) corals to species wherever possible;

§  Soft corals, gorgonians, black corals, anemones and conspicuous macroalgae recorded according to morphological features and to genus level where possible; and

§  Other benthos (e.g. sponges, ascidians, bryozoans, etc) recorded to genus level wherever possible but more typically to phylum plus growth form.

Each taxon in the inventory was ranked in terms of abundance in the community (i.e. specific to the area surveyed, not within the context of Hong Kong or greater region) (Table 2.3).  These broad categories rank taxa in terms of relative abundance of individuals, rather than the contribution to benthic cover along each transect.  The ranks are subjective assessments of abundance, rather than quantitative counts of each taxon.

Table 2.3        Ordinal Ranks of Taxon Abundance

Rank

Abundance

0

Absent

1

Rare (a)

2

Uncommon

3

Common

4

Abundant

5

Dominant

Note: (a) The classification of “rare” abundance refers to low abundance (small quantity) on the transect, rather than in terms of distribution in Hong Kong waters.

A set of environmental site descriptors were recorded for each REA transect as follows:

(A)   The degree of exposure to prevailing wave energy was ranked from 1 – 4, where:

1 = sheltered (highly protected by topographic features from prevailing waves);

2 = semi-sheltered (moderately protected);

3 = semi-exposed (only partly protected); and

4 = exposed (experiences the full force of prevailing wave energy).

(B)   Sediment deposition on the reef substratum (particle sizes ranging from very fine to moderately coarse) rated on a four point scale, from 0 -3, where:

0 = no sediment;

1 = minor (thin layer) sediment deposition;

2 = moderate sediment deposition (thick layer), but substrate can be cleaned by fanning off the sediment; and

3 = major sediment deposition (thick, deep layer), and substrate cannot be cleaned by fanning.

A suite of representative photographs was taken for each REA transect.  All field data were checked upon completion of each REA transect and a dive survey log was completed at the end of the fieldwork day.  Photographs were compiled for each REA transect which was then reviewed to verify the REA data.  Verified REA data were presented in terms of:

§  Site (transect) information (Tier I and II data), depth and environmental  descriptors;

§  Species abundance data for each transect; and

§  Species lists, species richness and mean values for ecological and substratum types were compiled.

Coral Colony Monitoring

Coral Colony Monitoring was undertaken using the same method as during the original Baseline Survey, the first Post-Project Monitoring Survey and the Baseline Update Survey to identify any evidence of sediment stress to corals before and after cable installation works of the Project.  At each coral monitoring station, a total of fifteen (15) hard coral colonies and fifteen (15) octocoral/black coral colonies (or all colonies present if less than 15) were selected for monitoring.  Priority was given to selecting colonies of horizontal plate-like and massive growth forms which present large stable surfaces for the interception and retention of settling solids.  Each of the selected corals was identified to species or genus levels and photographed.  The following data were collected:

§  Maximum diameter of the identified hard coral and soft coral colonies;

§  Maximum height and width of the identified gorgonians and black corals;

§  Percentage of sediment cover on the identified colonies and the colouration, texture and approximate thickness of sediment on the coral colonies and adjacent substrate;

§  Percentage of bleached area on the identified colonies of which two categories were recorded: a. blanched (ie pale) and b. bleached (ie whitened);

§  Percentage of colony area showing partiality mortality; and

§  Physical damage to colonies, tissue distension, mucous production and any other factors indicating to corals were noted in the field.

Although coral tagging is a common practice for repeated monitoring of individual colony, this technique was not employed in this monitoring programme due to difficulties in re-locating the exact transect placement and the tagged corals given the generally low visibility in the area and low light conditions in deep water.  Instead, colonies of similar growth forms and size were selected. 

3                                             Post project Coral Monitoring Survey Results

3.1                                      Introduction

This section presents findings of the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey.  Marine works for the cable repair works were completed on Thursday 6 February 2014 and final confirmation after testing of the cable was given on Tuesday 4 March 2014. 

Based on experience from the Updated Baseline survey (2013) and previous surveys, coral monitoring is very weather sensitive for this Project, only being possible across all of Zones A to C when the wind is under force 2-3.  After marine works completed, the weather forecast was therefore checked and predictions indicated 18 February as the best date to conduct coral surveys, with the weather looking to deteriorate subjequently.  To ensure post-project coral monitoring was carried out within three weeks of the marine works completing, the survey was undertaken as soon after marine works completion as the weather would allow. 

The Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey was therefore attempted in Zones A, B and C on 18 February 2014, being the most suitable date for the dive survey as explained above.  Weather conditions were mainly cloudy and foggy, with moderate (Force 3) southeast winds.  Mild to moderate swell, surface chop and moderate below-surface surge were experienced.  Underwater visibility was relatively high (~7 to 8 m) along the northeast face of Cape Collinson in Zone A and at the southern side of Tung Lung Chau in Zone C.  According to the previous survey experience at Tai Long Pai in Zone B during 2013 Baseline Update Survey and 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey, coral monitoring at Zone B could only be carried out when the wind force is below 2-3.  Moreover, since the above-surface visibility was extremely poor (< 600 m) and strong current was initially experienced at Tai Long Pai in Zone B, this area was considered too dangerous to continue the survey and was abandoned due to concerns for diver safety.  Weather conditions were monitored closely for another two weeks after 18 February to find another window to attempt to carry out monitoring survey at Tai Long Pai in Zone B,  however, continuous strong northeasterly or easterly wind (Force 5 to 6) were recorded making it unsuitable for any dive survey at Tai Long Pai in Zone B. 

It should also be noted that Tai Long Pai in Zone B is located at least 5 km from the cable repair works area and being so far away, would not be expected to be affected by the Project works. 

A detailed description and discussion of the monitoring results from Zone A and Zone C, collected on 18 February 2014, are presented below.

3.2                                      REA Survey Results

Seabed composition along the monitored transects within Zone A and Zone C are presented in Table 3.1.  Each taxon in the inventory was ranked in terms of relative abundance in the community and results recorded during the Post Project Coral Monitoring and Updated Baseline Surveys are shown in Table 3.2 and 3.3, respectively.  Findings of the REA surveys are discussed below.

Tier I Results

Zone A – Cape Collinson

During the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey conducted on 18 February 2014, the degree of exposure within Zone A, along the northeast face of Cape Collinson was (3) – semi-exposed, while the south side was (4) – exposed, thus creating moderate surge conditions nearshore.  Sediment deposition on the substrate (referring to hard substrates only) was rated as (1) – minor, with only a thin layer of sediment.

The seabed along the transects sampled in Zone A was mainly composed of bedrocks, large and small boulders in the shallow depth region (2-5 m CD), with some patches of sand (Table 3.1).  The deep depth region of Zone A (A-D1) (beyond 5 m CD) was mainly composed of sand and small boulders.  At transects A-D2 and A-D3, it was mainly composed of bedrocks, large and small boulders.  Some hard and octocoral colonies were present but accounted for less than 5% cover in shallow depth zone, whereas less than 5% hard coral cover and 6 to 10% octocoral cover were recorded in deep depth zone.  Moderate cover by crustose coralline algae was also observed at both depth zones.  Tier I results for Zone A are presented in Table 3.1.

The estimated percentage covers of the major benthic attributes were similar between the 2013 Baseline Update Survey, 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey and 2012 Baseline Survey, which recorded less than 5% hard coral cover in both depth zones, less than 5% octocoral cover in shallow depth zone and 6 to 10% octocoral cover in deep depth zone of Zone A.

Zone C – Tung Lung Chau

During the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey conducted on 18 February 2014, the degree of exposure within Zone C, along the southern face of Tung Lung Chau was (3) – semi-exposed, however due to the southeasterly wind on the survey day, moderate surge was experienced at the monitoring site.  Sediment deposition on the substrate (referring to hard substrates only) was rated as minor (1), with only a thin layer of sediment.

The seabed of both shallow and deep depth zones sampled in Zone C was mainly composed of bedrocks.  Hard coral colonies were present, accounting for less than 5% in both depth zones.  Octocoral cover in shallow and deep depth zones were less than 5% and 6 to 10%, respectively.  Moderate cover by crustose coralline algae was also observed.  Tier I results of Zone C are presented in Table 3.1.

The estimated percentage covers of the major benthic attributes were similar between the 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey and 2012 Baseline Survey, which recorded less than 5% hard coral cover, less than 5% octocoral cover in shallow depth zone and 6 to 10% octocoral cover in deep depth zone of Zone C.

Table 3.1        Seabed Attributes along the Semi-Quantitative Survey Transects during the Post-Project Coral Monitoring on 18 February 2014

Zone

A (Cape Collinson)

C (Tung Lung Chau)

Depth (a)

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

Seabed attributes (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bedrock

0

5

4

1

5

5

6

4

4

5

6

4

Boulders – large

3

2

3

2

3

3

0

3

3

2

2

2

Boulders – small

3

2

3

3

3

2

0

3

3

2

0

3

Rock

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

0

1

Rubble

3

2

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

2

0

2

Sand

2

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Silt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ecological attributes (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard coral

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Dead standing coral

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Octocoral

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

2

Black coral

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

Turf algae

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Macroalgae

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Coralline algae

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

Notes:       (a)        s = shallow water; m = mid water; d=deep water

            (b)        0= none recorded, 1=<5% Cover, 2= 6-10% Cover, 3 = 11-30% Cover, 4 = 31-50% Cover, 5 = 51-75% Cover, 6 = 76-100% Cover.

Tier II Results

Zone A – Cape Collinson

Hard coral coverage along the REA transects was less than 5% in both shallow and deep depth zones, while less than 5% and 6 to 10% octocoral cover was recorded along the REA transects in shallow and deep depth zones, respectively.  The hard coral coverage recorded during this February 2014 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey is similar to that observed during the 2013 Baseline Update Survey, 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey and 2012 Baseline Survey.  Twelve hermatypic hard coral species (Cyphastrea serailia, Favia favus, Favia rotumana, Goniopora planulata, Favites pentagona, Goniopora stutchburyi, Oulastrea crispata, Plesiastrea versipora, Porites lutea, Psammocora profundacella, Psammocora superficialis and Turbinaria peltata), one ahermatypic hard coral species (Tubastrea sp.) and twelve octocoral species (Anthogorgia sp., Dendronephthya sp., Dichotella sp., Echinogorgia sp., Echinomuricea sp., Ellisella sp., Euplexaura sp., Menella sp., Paraplexaura sp., Scleronephthya sp., Sinularia sp. and Viminella sp.) were recorded in this February 2014 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey, compared with the five hermatypic hard coral and twelve octocoral species recorded in the 2013 Post-Project Monitoring.  The higher number of hermatypic hard coral species recorded might be due to the higher underwater visibility (~ 7 to 8m) during the current dive survey compared to the lower water clarity (~3 to 5m) during the previous 2013 Post-Project Monitoring, meaning that they were more readily identified in this current survey.  Moreover, the placement of transects is not exact in every monitoring event since the conditions at the sites do not allow for permanent transects or any coral colony markers to be placed, so transects may not cover the exact space or the same coral colonies in each survey.

Goniopora stutchburyi and Psammocora superficialis were the dominant hard coral species recorded, while Dendronephthya sp., Echinomuricea sp. and Paraplexaura sp. and Euplexaura sp. were the dominant octocoral species found.  Results of the Tier II Survey conducted during this February 2014 Post-Project Coral Monitoring for Zone A are presented in Table 3.2.

Zone C – Tung Lung Chau

Both hard coral and octocoral coverage were less than 5% along the REA transects in shallow depth zone (2-5 m CD), whereas in the deep depth zone (beyond 5m CD), hard coral coverage was less than 5% and the octocoral coverage was between 6 to 10% along the REA transects surveyed.  These results are similar to that observed during the 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey and 2012 Baseline Survey.

Eleven hermatypic hard coral species (Cyphastrea chalcidium, Cyphastrea serailia, Favites chinensis, Favia favus, Goniopora stutchburyi, Montipora peltiformis, Montipora venosa, Oulastrea crispata, Plesiastrea versipora, Porites lutea and Psammocora superficialis), one ahermatypic hard coral (Tubastrea sp.), twelve octocoral species (Acanthogorgia sp., Dendronephthya sp., Dichotella sp., Echinogorgia sp., Echinomuricea sp., Euplexaura sp., Leptogorgia sp., Menella sp., Paraminabea sp., Paraplexaura sp., Scleronephthya sp., and Verrucella sp.) and two black coral species (Antipathes sp. and Cirrhipathes sp.) were recorded during this February 2014 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey, compared with the nine hermatypic hard coral species, nine octocoral species and two black coral species recorded in the 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey.  The higher number of hermatypic hard coral and octocoral species recorded in this dive survey might be due to the higher underwater visibility (~ 7 to 8m) during the current dive survey compared to the lower water clarity (~3 to 5m) during the previous 2013 Post-Project Monitoring, meaning that they were more readily identified in this current survey.  Moreover, the placement of transects is not exact in every monitoring event since the conditions at the sites do not allow for permanent transects or any coral colony markers to be placed, so transects may not cover the exact space or the same coral colonies in each survey.

Montipora venosa, Psammocora superficialis and Porites lutea were the dominant hard coral species recorded, while Dendronephthya sp. was the dominant octocoral species found (Table 3.2).  Results of the Tier II Survey during this February 2014 Post-Project Coral Monitoring for Zone C are presented in Table 3.2.

 

Table 3.2        Results of REA Tier II Survey, Post-Project Coral Monitoring conducted on 18 February 2014

 

Zone A (Cape Collinson)

Zone C (Tung Lung Chau)

Taxon

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

Scleractinian (hard) Corals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyphastrea chalcidium

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

1

Cyphastrea serailia

1

 

1

 

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

Favites chinensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

Favia favus

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

Favia rotumana

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Favites pentagona

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goniopora planulata

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goniopora stutchburyi

3

2

2

 

 

 

1

2

2

 

2

1

Montipora peltiformis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

Montipora venosa

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

3

 

 

 

Oulastrea crispata

3

1

2

1

 

 

3

 

 

 

2

2

Plesiastrea versipora

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

2

2

 

 

 

Porites lutea

2

2

2

 

 

 

3

1

2

 

 

2

Psammocora profundacella

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psammocora superficialis

3

1

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

2

1

Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp.

 

1

 

 

 

 

3

2

2

 

 

 

Turbinaria peltata

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alcyonacean (soft) Coral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acanthogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Anthogorgia sp

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendronephthya sp.

3

2

4

1

1

4

2

2

 

3

3

2

Dichotella sp.

 

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Echinogorgia sp.

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Echinomuricea sp.

2

3

3

4

3

3

 

 

2

 

2

 

Ellisella sp.

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euplexaura sp.

2

2

2

2

 

2

 

 

 

2

1

1

Leptogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Menella sp.

 

2

 

2

 

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

Paraminabea sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Paraplexaura sp.

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

 

 

1

 

 

Scleronephthya sp.

 

 

1

 

 

3

2

 

 

2

2

2

Sinularia sp.

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viminella sp.

1

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verrucella sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Antipatharian (Black) coral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antipathes sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Cirrhipathes sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

1

Other Fauna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anemones

1

1

1

0

0

0

3

3

2

0

0

0

Anthocidaris crassipina

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Barnacles

4

4

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

Bryozoans

2

2

2

2

0

1

2

2

2

1

0

0

Colochirus quadrangularis

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

1

Cowrie

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

1

2

0

Crinoids

3

3

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Diadema sp.

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Holothuria leucospilata

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Perna viridis

2

2

1

0

0

0

2

1

2

0

0

0

Saccostrea cucullata

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

2

1

0

0

0

Sponges

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

1

2

Tunicates

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

Zoanthids

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

3

Note:   *Abundance rating (refer to Table 2.3): 0 = absent; 1 = rare; 2 = uncommon; 3 = common; 4 = abundant; 5 = dominant.
The classification of “rare” abundance refers to low abundance (small quantity) on the transect, rather than in terms of distribution in Hong Kong waters.

Due to the low water clarity and the strong surge experienced during the attempts for the Baseline Update Survey on 7 November 2013, only 75 m of the Zone A-S2 transect was surveyed.  Results of REA Tier II Survey conducted during the 2013 Baseline Update Survey, the 2013 Post-Project Coral Monitoring Survey and the 2012 Baseline Survey are presented in Tables 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5, respectively.


 

Table 3.3        Results of REA Tier II Survey, Baseline Update (November 7, 2013)

Taxon

Ordinal Rank*

Abundance

Scleractinian (hard) Corals

 

 

Cyphastrea serailia

1

Rare

Favia sp.

1

Rare

Goniopora stutchburyi

2

Uncommon

Oulastrea crispata

1

Rare

Plesiastrea versipora

1

Rare

Porites lutea

2

Uncommon

Alcyonacean (soft) Coral

 

 

Dendronepthya sp.

2

Uncommon

Euplexaura sp.

2

Uncommon

Paraplexaura sp.

2

Uncommon

Other Fauna

 

 

Anemones

1

Rare

Anthocidaris crassipina

5

Dominant

Barnacles

4

Abundant

Bryozoans

2

Uncommon

Colochirus quadrangularis

1

Rare

Holothuria leucospilata

1

Rare

Perna viridis

2

Uncommon

Saccostrea cucullata

4

Abundant

Tunicates

1

Rare

Notes:                  

*Abundance rating (refer to Table 2.3): 0 = absent; 1 = rare; 2 = uncommon; 3 = common;
4 = abundant; 5 = dominant.

The classification of “rare” abundance refers to low abundance (small quantity) on the transect,
rather than in terms of distribution in Hong Kong waters.

 


Table 3.4        Results of REA Tier II Survey during the 2013 Post Project Coral Monitoring (February 2013)

Species

Zone A (Cape Collinson)

Zone B (Tai Long Pai)

Zone C (Tung Lung Chau)

Depth

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

D1

D2

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

Scleractinian (hard) Coral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyphastrea chalcidicum

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

1

Favites chinensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

Goniopora stutchburyi

2

 

1

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

2

2

2

 

2

1

Montipora mollis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Montipora peltiformis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

Montipora venosa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

3

 

 

 

Oulastrea crispata

3

1

2

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psammocora superficialis

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

2

Plesiastrea versipora

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

Porites lobata

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

2

 

2

 

Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp.

 

1

 

 

 

 

3

3

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

Alcyonacean (soft) Coral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acanthogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Anthogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendronephthya sp.

 

2

4

1

1

4

3

 

3

3

2

2

 

3

3

2

Dichotella sp.

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Echinogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Echinomuricea sp.

2

3

3

4

3

3

 

2

2

2

 

 

2

 

2

 

Ellisella sp.

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euplexaura sp.

 

2

2

2

 

2

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

Menella sp.

 

2

 

2

 

 

2

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

1

 

Paraminabea sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Paraplexaura sp.

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

1

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Scleronephythya sp.

 

 

1

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

2

2

2

Sinularia sp.

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verrucella sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viminella sp.

1

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antipatharian (black) Coral