Contents

1                      Introduction                                                                          

1.1                   Background                                                                           

1.2                   Purpose of this Report                                                    

1.3                   Structure of the Report                                                

2                      Post Project coral Monitoring Survey Methodology 

2.1                   Monitoring Locations                                                       

2.2                   Methodology                                                                         

3                      Post project Coral Monitoring Survey Results    

3.1                   Introduction                                                                          

3.2                   REA Survey Results                                                            

3.3                   Results of Coral Colony Monitoring                      

4                      Conclusion                                                                             

 

ANNEX

Annex A        Photographic Results of Identified Coral Colonies in Zone A, B & C

Annex B          RTC Table

 

 

1                                            Introduction

1.1                                      Background

NTT Com Asia (NTTCA) proposed to install a telecommunication cable (Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE) cable) of approximately 7,200 km in length, connecting Japan and Singapore with branches to the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR (HKSAR) and Malaysia.  NTTCA is responsible for securing the approval to land the ASE cable in Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong SAR (HKSAR).  The landing site is at a new Beach Manhole (BMH) and the cable is ultimately connected with a Data Centre in Tseung Kwan O (TKO) Industrial Estate.  From Tseung Kwan O, the cable extends westward approaching the Tathong Channel.  Near to Cape Collinson, the cable is approximately parallel to the Tathong Channel until north of Waglan Island where the cable travels eastward to the boundary of HKSAR waters where it enters the South China Sea.  The total length of cable in Hong Kong SAR waters is approximately 33.5 km.  A map of the cable route is presented in Figure 1.1.

A Project Profile (PP-452/2011) which includes an assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the installation of the submarine telecommunications cable system was prepared and submitted to the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) under section 5.(1)(b) and 5.(11) of the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) for the application for Permission to apply directly for Environmental Permit (EP).  The Environmental Protection Department, subsequently issued an Environmental Permit (EP- 433/2011) for the Project.  In accordance with the EP conditions, an environmental monitoring and audit (EM&A) programme is required to be implemented in order to track the environmental performance of the cable installation works of the Project.

Marine works for the cable installation was completed in January 2013.  In accordance with the EM&A Manual ([1]) , Post Project Coral Survey should be conducted within one month after completion of the marine works in order to determine any detectable changes in coral conditions which may be caused by the cable installation works. 

1.2                                      Purpose of this Report

This Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey Report (“the Report”) is prepared by ERM-Hong Kong, Limited (ERM) on behalf of NTTCA to present the methodology and findings of the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey in accordance with requirements of the EM&A Manual. 

1.3                                      Structure of the Report

The remainder of the report is structured as follows:

Section 2: Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey Methodology

Presents the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey methodology, parameters monitored, monitoring locations and depth in accordance with the EM&A Manual.

Section 3: Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey Results

Reviews the conditions and health status of corals at the monitoring stations as recorded during the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey for comparison with the baseline coral information in order to determine any detectable changes that may be caused by the cable installation works of the Project.

Section 4: Conclusion

Concludes findings from the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey.

2                                            Post Project coral Monitoring Survey Methodology

This section presents the methodology of the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey which is undertaken within one month after the marine works of the Project.  The methodology adopted is the same as that for the Baseline Coral Survey undertaken before the cable installation works, except for the qualitative spot dive survey which was conducted for the Baseline Survey only to determine the locations of monitoring transects.  The employment of the same methodology would allow for direct comparison of coral conditions and health status before and after the cable installation works and hence, determines any detectable changes in coral assemblages concerned after the works. 

2.1                                      Monitoring Locations

The monitoring locations of marine ecological survey are shown in Figure 2.1. These included:

Monitoring Stations:

Zone A: Cape Collinson; and

§   Zone B: Tai Long Pai.

Control Station:

§   Zone C: Tung Lung Chau.

2.2                                      Methodology

Subtidal dive surveys were undertaken at subtidal hard bottom habitats within and in close proximity to the Project Area with a key focus along the cable route where hard substrata were recorded from the geophysical survey.  The Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey comprised the following two components:

§   Semi-quantitative Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) survey; and

§   Coral Colony Monitoring.

Each of these surveys is described further in the following sections. 

Rapid Ecological Assessment Survey Method

A standardised semi-quantitative REA survey technique was used to investigate the general conditions of the coral communities (hard, soft and black corals) associated with subtidal hard bottom habitats at the Monitoring and Control Stations.  The collection of REA data during the Baseline Coral Survey and Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey would allow for a direct comparison of coral conditions before and after the cable installation works of the Project in order to determine any detectable changes in conditions which may be caused by the works.

The REA technique allows semi-quantitative information on the ecological attributes of the subtidal habitat to be obtained in a relatively simple way without compromising scientific rigour.  This technique is the standard practices for EIA and EM&A marine ecological surveys in Hong Kong and has been modified from the standardised REA survey technique established for the assessment of coral communities on the Great Barrier Reef ([2]) for marine environment of Hong Kong ([3]).

A series of REA surveys were conducted by qualified coral ecologists by SCUBA at the Monitoring stations (Cape Collinson and Tai Long Pai) and Control Station (Tung Lung Chau) with the aim to record the condition of substratum, estimate the diversity and relative abundance of coral assemblages (ie hard corals, octocorals and black corals) and with all hard coral colonies identified to species level while octocorals and black corals recorded to genus level.  The survey was undertaken on REA transects laid onto the seabed, each of which measure 100 m in length, at the following two depth regions of each station:

§   Shallow depth region: -2 to -5 m CD (typically the depth range of hard coral colonies associated with subtidal hard bottom habitat); and

§   Deep depth region: -5 to -15 m CD.

The location of the REA transects as well as the depth ranges of the monitored depth regions were determined based on findings from the qualitative spot dive survey which were undertaken during the baseline monitoring.  A total of three (3) REA transects were monitored at each depth region of Cape Collinson and Tung Lung Chau, while two (2) transects were monitored at each depth region of Tai Long Pai due to smaller area of this Monitoring Station.

Following the laying of the transect line, the coral specialist swam along the transect slowly and conducted the REA survey.  The REA methodology encompassed an assessment of the benthic cover (Tier I) and taxon abundance (Tier II) undertaken in a swathe ~ 4 m wide, 2 m either side of each transect.  The belt transect width was dependent on underwater visibility and might be adjusted to a swathe ~ 2 m wide, 1 m either side of each transect in case of reduced visibility.  An explanation of the two assessment categories (Tiers) used in the survey is presented below.

Tier I – Categorisation of Benthic Cover

Upon the completion of each survey transect, five ecological and seven substratum attributes were assigned to one of seven standard ranked (ordinal) categories (Tables 2.1 and 2.2).

Table 2.1        Categories used in the REA Surveys – Benthic Attributes

Ecological

Substratum

Hard coral

Hard Substratum

Dead standing coral

Continuous pavement

Soft coral

Bedrock

Black coral

Rubble

Macroalgae

Sand

Turf Algae

Silt

 

Large boulders (>50 cm)

 

Small boulders (<50 cm)

 

Rocks (<26 cm)

 

Table 2.2        Categories used in the REA Surveys – Ordinal Ranks of Percentage Cover

Rank

Percentage Cover (%)

0

None recorded

1

1-5

2

6-10

3

11-30

4

31-50

5

51-75

6

76-100

 

Tier II – Taxonomic Inventories to Define Types of Benthic Communities

An inventory of benthic taxa were compiled for each transect.  Taxa were identified in situ to the following levels:

§   Scleractinian (hard) corals to species wherever possible;

§   Soft corals, gorgonians, black corals, anemones and conspicuous macroalgae recorded according to morphological features and to genus level where possible; and

§   Other benthos (including sponges, zoanthids, ascidians and bryozoans) recorded to genus level wherever possible but more typically to phylum plus growth form.

Following the completion of each transect survey, each taxon in the inventory was ranked in terms of abundance in the community (Table 2.3).  These broad categories rank taxa in terms of relative abundance of individuals, rather than the contribution to benthic cover along each transect.  The ranks are subjective assessments of abundance, rather than quantitative counts of each taxon.


 

Table 2.3        Ordinal Ranks of Taxon Abundance

Rank

Abundance

0

Absent

1

Rare (a)

2

Uncommon

3

Common

4

Abundant

5

Dominant

Note:

(a) The classification of “rare” abundance refers to low abundance (small quantity) on the transect, rather than in terms of distribution in Hong Kong waters.

A set of environmental site descriptors were recorded for each REA transect as follows:

(A)  The degree of exposure to prevailing wave energy was ranked from 1 – 4, where:

1 = sheltered (highly protected by topographic features from prevailing waves);

2 = semi-sheltered (moderately protected);

3 = semi-exposed (only partly protected); and

4 = exposed (experiences the full force of prevailing wave energy).

(B)  Sediment deposition on the reef substratum (particle sizes ranging from very fine to moderately coarse) rated on a four point scale, from 0 -3, where:

0 = no sediment;

1 = minor (thin layer) sediment deposition;

2 = moderate sediment deposition (thick layer), but substrate can be cleaned by fanning off the sediment; and

3 = major sediment deposition (thick, deep layer), and substrate cannot be cleaned by fanning.

A suite of representative photographs was taken for each REA transect.  All field data were checked upon completion of each REA transect and a dive survey proforma sheet was completed at the end of the fieldwork day.  Photographs were compiled for each REA transect which was then reviewed to verify the REA data.  Verified REA data were presented in terms of:

§  Site (transect) information (Tier I and II data), depth and environmental  descriptors;

§  Species abundance data for each transect; and

§  Species lists, species richness and mean values for ecological and substratum types were compiled.  The rank abundance values were converted to a mid-value percentage cover.

Coral Colony Monitoring

Coral Colony Monitoring was undertaken during the Baseline Coral Survey and the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey to identify any evidence of sediment stress to corals before and after cable installation works of the Project.  At each coral monitoring station, a total of fifteen (15) hard coral colonies and fifteen (15) octocoral/black coral colonies were selected for monitoring.  Priority was given to selecting colonies of horizontal plate-like and massive growth forms which present large stable surfaces for the interception and retention of settling solids.  Each of the selected corals was identified to species or genus levels and photographed.  The following data were collected:

§  Maximum diameter of the identified hard coral and soft coral colonies;

§  Maximum height and width of the identified gorgonians and black corals;

§  Percentage of sediment cover on the identified colonies and the colouration, texture and approximate thickness of sediment on the coral colonies and adjacent substrate;

§  Percentage of bleached area on the identified colonies of which two categories were recorded: a. blanched (ie pale) and b. bleached (ie whitened);

§  Percentage of colony area showing partiality mortality; and

§  Physical damage to colonies, tissue distension, mucous production and any other factors indicating to corals were noted in the field.

Although coral tagging is a common practice for repeated monitoring of individual colony, this technique was not employed in this monitoring programme due to difficulties in re-locating the tagged corals given the generally low visibility in the area and low light conditions in deep water.  Instead, colonies of similar growth forms and size would be selected for the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys. 

3                                            Post project Coral Monitoring Survey Results

3.1                                      Introduction

This section presents findings of the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey which is undertaken within one month after completion of jetting works for the cable installation of the Project.  Findings from the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey are compared with those obtained from the Baseline Coral Survey which was undertaken before cable installations works in order to determine any detectable changes in coral conditions and health status and the relationship of such changes, if any, to the cable installation works of the Project. 

The Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey was conducted over two days on 18 and 19 February 2013.  The weather condition was mainly sunny, with light (Force 2) to moderate (Force 3) east to southeasterly winds.  Slight to moderate swell presented in the sea on the two survey days.  The underwater visibility was moderate and generally ranged between 3 to 5 m.  Coral communities at Zone A: Cape Collinson, Zone B: Tai Long Pai and Zone C: Tung Lung Chau were monitored (see Figure 2.1 for monitoring locations).  Detailed description and discussion of the monitoring results are presented below.

3.2                                      REA Survey Results

Seabed compositions along each monitored transects of Zone A to C are shown in Tables 3.1, 3.2a and 3.2b.  Each taxon in the inventory was ranked in terms of relative abundance in the community and results recorded during the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys are shown in Table 3.3a and 3.3b, respectively.  Findings of the REA surveys are discussed below.

Zone A – Cape Collinson

Major Abiotic Attributes

The seabed at the REA survey area of Zone A was mainly composed of bedrocks in shallow depth region (2-5 m CD) and bedrocks and boulders at deep depth region (5-15m CD), except at the deep depth region of Transect 1 which was mainly composed of sand and small boulders (Tables 3.2a-b).  The estimated percentage covers of the major abiotic attributes were noted to be similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys.

Major Biotic Attributes

Both hard coral and octocoral covers were less than 5% in shallow depth region (2-5 m CD) as recorded during both the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys (Tables 3.2a-b).  Compositions of coral assemblages were also noted to be similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys, with six (6) hard coral and eight (8) octocoral species recorded during both surveys (Tables 3.3a-b).  Oulastrea crispata and Goniopora stutchburyi were the dominant hard coral species recorded while Echinomuricea sp. was the dominant octocoral species found.  

Octocoral cover was found between 6-10% while no hard coral was recorded in deep depth region (5-15 m CD) during both the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey (Tables 3.2a-b).  Species compositions of coral assemblages were similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys, with 11 octocoral species recorded during the Baseline Coral Survey while 13 octocoral species were recorded during the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey (Tables 3.3a-b).  Echinomuricea sp. and Dendronephthya sp. were the dominant octocoral species recorded.

Less than 5% of macroalgae cover was recorded at both shallow and deep depth regions during the Post Project Coral Monitoring in February 2013 (Tables 3.2a-b).  The presence of macroalgae in winter during the Post Project Coral Monitoring in February 2013 but not during the Baseline Coral Survey in September 2012 is due to the natural seasonal cycle as with lower seawater temperature in winter which triggered the growth of macroalgae.

Overall, comparison of the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey results did not indicate any detectable changes in coral conditions at Zone A before and after the cable installation works.  Therefore, there did not appear to be any unacceptable ecological impacts to coral assemblages at Zone A as a result of the cable installation works.

Zone B – Tai Long Pai

Major Abiotic Attributes

Seabed at the REA survey area of Zone B was mainly composed of bedrocks in both shallow (2-5 m CD) and deep (5-15m CD) depth regions (Tables 3.2a-b).  The estimated percentage covers of the major abiotic attributes were noted to be similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys.

Major Biotic Attributes

Hard coral and octocoral covers were less than 5% and about 5% in shallow depth region (2-5 m CD) respectively as recorded during both the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys (Tables 3.2a-b).  Species compositions of coral assemblages were also similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys, with four (4) hard coral and five (5) octocoral species recorded respectively (Tables 3.3a-b).  Goniopora stutchburyi and Tubastrea sp. were the dominant hard coral species while Dendronephthya sp. was the dominant octocoral species recorded during both surveys. 

Octocoral cover was between 11 – 30% in deep depth region (5-15 m CD) during both the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys (Tables 3.2a-b).  No hard coral was found in the deep depth region.  Species compositions of coral assemblages were similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys, with 10 octocoral species recorded during both surveys (Tables 3.3a-b).  Echinomuricea sp. and Dendronephthya sp. were the dominant octocoral species recorded.    

Macroalgae covers were found to be less than 5% and between 6-10% at shallow and deep depth regions, respectively, during the Post Project Coral Monitoring in February 2013 (Tables 3.2a-b).  The record of macroalgae during the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey only is due to the natural seasonal cycle in winter as explained above.

Overall, comparison of the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey results did not indicate any detectable changes in coral conditions at Zone B before and after the cable installation works.  Therefore, there did not appear to be any unacceptable ecological impacts to coral assemblages at Zone B as a result of the cable installation works.

Zone C – Tung Lung Chau

Major Abiotic Attributes

Seabed at the REA survey area of Zone C was mainly composed of bedrocks, large and small boulders in shallow depth region (2-5 m CD) whereas at the deep depth region (5-15m CD) was predominantly composed of bedrocks (Tables 3.2a-b).  The estimated percentage covers of the major abiotic attributes were noted to be similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys.

Major Biotic Attributes

Both hard coral and octocoral covers were less than 5% in shallow depth region (2-5 m CD) as recorded during both the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys (Tables 3.2a-b).  Compositions of coral assemblages were also noted to be similar between both surveys with nine (9) hard coral and three (3) octocoral species recorded in the Baseline Coral Survey, and 10 hard coral species and three (3) octocoral species recorded in the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey (Tables 3.3a-b).  Montipora venosa and Goniopora stutchburyi were the dominant hard coral species while Dendronephthya sp. was the dominant octocoral species recorded. 

Both hard coral and octocoral covers were less than 5% and less than 10% in deep (5-15 m CD) depth region respectively during both the Baseline Coral Survey and Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey (Tables 3.2a-b).  Comparison of coral assemblages were similar between the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Surveys, with five (5) hard coral species and seven (7) octocoral species recorded during the Baseline Coral Survey, whereas five (5) hard coral species and 11 octocoral species were recorded during the Post Project Coral Monitoring (Tables 3.3a-b).  Dendronephthya sp. and Scleronephythya sp. were the dominant octocoral species recorded.  As for Zone A and Zone B, macroalgae were recorded at the deep depth region of Zone C during the Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey in February 2013 but not the Baseline Coral Survey in September 2012 (Tables 3.2a-b) due to the natural seasonal cycle in winter which triggered the growth of seaweed.

Overall, comparison of the Baseline and Post Project Coral Monitoring Survey results did not indicate any detectable changes in coral conditions at Zone C which serves as a Control station that is unlikely to be affected by the cable installation works. 


 

Table 3.1        Description of the Seabed Composition Recorded along Each REA Survey Transect ([4])

Transect

Depth

(-m CD)

Description

Zone A - Cape Collinson (Monitoring Site)

Transect 1

Shallow

~5

The seabed was composed of rubbles and small boulders.  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 4 hard coral species Oulastrea crispata, Goniopora stutchburyi, Psammocora superficialis and Cyphastrea chalcidicum recorded.  The octocoral cover was low (< 5%) with four species (Paraplexaura sp., Echinomuricea sp., Viminella sp. and Ellisella sp.) recorded.

Deep

~9

The seabed was mainly composed of sand (~50%).  No hard coral colonies were found.  The octocoral cover was low (between 6-10%) with gorgonians growing on sand.  Seven species of octocorals (Echinomuricea sp., Paraplexaura sp., Menella sp., Euplexaura sp., Muricella sp., Sinularia sp. and Dendronephthya sp.) were recorded.

Transect 2

Shallow

~5

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~60%).  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 2 hard coral species Oulastrea crispata and Psammocora superficialis recorded.  The octocoral cover was low (< 5%) with 6 species (Dendronethphya sp., Ellisella sp. Echinomuricea sp., Euplexaura sp., Paraplexaura sp. and Menella sp.) recorded.

Deep

~8-9

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~50%).  No hard coral colonies were found.  The octocoral cover was low (between 6-10%) with 6 species (Dendronethphya sp., Dichotella sp., Paraplexaura sp., Echinomuricea sp. and Euplexaura sp. and Viminella sp.) recorded. Two species of black corals, Antipathes curvata and Cirrhipathes sp., were recorded.

Transect 3

Shallow

~5

 

 

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~60%).  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 3 hard coral species Oulastrea crispata, Goniopora stutchburyi and Plesiastrea versipora recorded.  The octocoral cover was low (< 5%) with 7 species (Dendronethphya sp., Scleronephthya gracillicum, Ellisella sp. Echinomuricea sp., Viminella sp., Paraplexaura sp., Euplexaura sp. and Menella sp.) recorded.

Deep

~9

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~60%).  No hard coral species was found.  The octocoral cover was between 6-10% with 6 species (Paraplexaura sp., Echinomuricea sp., Euplexaura sp., Anthogorgia sp., Dendronephthya sp. and Scleronephthya gracillicum) recorded.                                            

Zone B – Tai Long Pai (Monitoring Site)

Transect 1

Shallow

~2-5

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (> 80%).  No hermatypic hard coral species was recorded while 1 species of ahermatypic hard coral (Tubastrea/Dendrophyllia sp.) was recorded.  The octocoral cover was about 5% with 4 species (Dendronephthya sp., Menella sp., Euplexaura sp., Paraplexaura sp.) recorded.

Deep

~5-15

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (> 80%).  No hard coral species was recorded.  The octocoral cover was between 11-30% with 8 species (Dendronephthya sp., Menella sp., Euplexaura sp., Paraplexaura sp., Anthogorgia sp., Acanthogorgia sp., Verrucella sp. and Echinomuricea sp.) recorded.  Black coral colonies, Antipathes curvata and Cirrhipathes sp. were observed.

 

Transect 2

Shallow

~2-5

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (> 80%).  The hard coral cover was extremely low (< 5%) with 3 species Goniopora stutchburyi, Cyphastrea chalcidicum and Psammocora superficialis recorded.  Colonies of ahermatypic hard coral Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp. were found.  The octocoral cover was about 5% with 3 species (Euplexaura sp., Paraplexaura sp. and Echinomuricea sp.) recorded.

Deep

~5-15

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (> 80%).  No hard coral species were recorded.  The octocoral cover was between 11-30% with 7 species (Dendronephthya sp., Menella sp., Euplexaura sp., Paraplexaura sp., Anthogorgia sp., Verrucella sp. and Echinomuricea sp.) recorded.  Black coral colonies, Antipathes curvata and Cirrhipathes sp. were observed.

Zone C – Tung Lung Chau (Control Site)

Transect 1

Shallow

~5

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~80%).  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 7 hermatypic hard coral species Goniopora stutchburyi, Psammocora superficialis, Cyphastrea chalcidicum, Plesiastrea versipora, Porites lobata, Montipora mollis and Montipora venosa recorded.  One species of ahermatypic hard coral Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp. was recorded.  The octocoral cover was very low (< 5%) with Dendronephthya sp. and Scleronephthya gracillicum recorded.

Deep

~10

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~60%).  The hard coral cover was low (<5%).  The octocoral cover was low (< 10%) with Euplexaura sp., Paraplexaura sp., Dendronephthya sp. and Scleronephthya gracillicum recorded.

Transect 2

Shallow

~5

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~40%).  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 7 species Montipora peltiformis, Porites lobata, Cyphastrea chalcidicum, Favites chinensis, Goniopora stutchburyi, Montipora venosa and Plesiastrea verisipora recorded.  One species of ahermatypic hard coral Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp. was recorded.  The octocoral cover was very low (< 5%) with only a few small colonies of Dendronephthya sp. recorded.

Deep

~8

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (~80%).  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 3 species Plesiastrea versipora, Porites lobata and Psammocora superficialis recorded.  The octocoral cover was low (< 10%) with Acanthogorgia sp., Echinomuricea sp., Euplexaura sp., Menella sp., Dendronephthya sp. and Scleronephthya gracillicum recorded.

Transect 3

Shallow

5

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks and small boulders.  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 5 species Montipora venosa, Porites lobata, Goniopora stutchburyi, Plesiastrea verisipora and Cyphastrea chalcidicum recorded. One species of ahermatypic hard coral Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp. was recorded.  The octocoral cover was very low (< 5%) with Echinomuricea sp. recorded.

Deep

~9

The seabed was mainly composed of bedrocks (50%).  The hard coral cover was low (< 5%) with 4 species Montipora peltiformis, Goniopora stutchburyi, Cyphastrea chalcidicum and Psammocora superficialis recorded.  The octocoral cover was low (< 10%) with Paraminabea sp., Euplexaura sp., Echinogorgia sp., Dendronephthya sp. and Scleronephthya gracillicum recorded. Two species of black corals, Antipathes curvata and Cirrhipathes sp., were recorded.

 

Table 3.2a      Ordinal Rank of Percentage Cover of Seabed Attributes along the REA Survey Transects during the Baseline Coral Survey

Zone

A

B

C

Depth (a)

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

D1

D2

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

Seabed attributes (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bedrock

0

5

4

1

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

4

4

5

6

4

Boulders – large

3

2

3

2

3

3

1

2

3

3

0

3

3

2

2

2

Boulders – small

3

2

3

3

3

2

1

1

2

2

0

3

3

2

0

3

Rock

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

2

1

1

0

1

Rubble

3

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

0

2

Sand

2

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Silt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ecological attributes (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard coral

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Dead standing coral

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Octocoral

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

3

3

1

1

1

2

2

2

Black coral

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Turf algae

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Macroalgae

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Coralline algae

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Notes:      

(a) s = shallow water; m = mid water; d=deep water

(b) 1=<5% Cover, 2= 6-10% Cover, 3 = 11-30% Cover, 4 = 31-50% Cover, 5 = 51-75% Cover, 6          = 76-100% Cover.  Also refer to Table 2.2.

Table 3.2b      Ordinal Rank of Percentage Cover of Seabed Attributes along the REA Survey Transects during the Post Project Coral Monitoring

Zone

A

B

C

Depth (a)

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

D1

D2

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

Seabed attributes (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bedrock

0

5

4

1

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

4

4

5

6

4

Boulders – large

3

2

3

2

3

3

1

2

3

3

0

3

3

2

2

2

Boulders – small

3

2

3

3

3

2

1

1

2

2

0

3

3

2

0

3

Rock

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

2

1

1

0

1

Rubble

3

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

2

0

2

Sand

2

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Silt

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ecological attributes (b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard coral

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Dead standing coral

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Octocoral

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

3

3

1

1

1

2

2

2

Black coral

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Turf algae

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Macroalgae

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

0

0

0

1

1

1

Coralline algae

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Notes:      

(a) s = shallow water; m = mid water; d=deep water

(b) 1=<5% Cover, 2= 6-10% Cover, 3 = 11-30% Cover, 4 = 31-50% Cover, 5 = 51-75% Cover, 6          = 76-100% Cover.  Also refer to Table 2.2.


Table 3.3a      Ordinal Rank of Taxon Abundance along the REA Survey Transects during the Baseline Coral Survey

Type

Taxon/ Family

Species

A

A

A

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

C

C

C

C

C

C

 

 

Depth (a)

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

D1

D2

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard Coral

Acroporidae

Montipora peltiformis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

Montipora mollis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montipora venosa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Siderastreidae

Psammocora superficialis

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendrophyllidae

Turbinaria peltata

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp.

 

1

 

 

 

 

3

3

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faviidae

Cyphastrea chalcidicum

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

1

 

 

Favites chinensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oulastrea crispata

3

1

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plesiastrea versipora

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poritidae

Goniopora stutchburyi

2

 

1

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

2

2

2

 

2

1

 

 

Porites lobata

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

1

2

 

2

 

Octocoral

Acanthogorgiidae

Acanthogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Anthogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muricella sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alcyoniidae

Paraminabea sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sinularia sp.

 

 

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nephtheidae

Dendronephthya sp.

 

2

4

1

1

4

3

 

3

3

2

2

 

3

 

2

 

 

Scleronephythya sp.

 

 

1

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plexauridae

Astrogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Echinogorgia sp.

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Echinomuricea sp.

2

3

3

4

3

3

 

2

2

2

 

 

2

 

2

 

 

 

Euplexaura sp.

 

2

2

2

 

2

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

2

1

1

 

 

Menella sp.

 

2

 

2

 

 

2

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Paraplexaura sp.

1

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

1

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ellisiidae

Dichotella sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ellisella sp.

1

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viminella sp.

1

 

1

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verrucella sp.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Coral

Antipathidae

Antipathes sp.

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cirrhipathes sp.

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes:

*        Abundance rating (refer to Table 2.3): 1 = rare; 2 = uncommon; 3 = common; 4 = abundant. 

Table 3.3b      Ordinal Rank of Taxon Abundance along the REA Survey Transects during the Post Project Coral Monitoring

Type

Taxon/ Family

Species

A

A

A

A

A

A

B

B

B

B

C

C

C

C

C

C

 

 

Depth (a)

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

S1

S2

D1

D2

S1

S2

S3

D1

D2

D3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hard Coral

Acroporidae

Montipora peltiformis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

 

Montipora mollis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montipora venosa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Siderastreidae

Psammocora superficialis

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendrophyllidae

Turbinaria peltata

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tubastrea/ Dendrophyllia sp.

 

1

 

 

 

 

3

3

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faviidae

Cyphastrea chalcidicum

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

2

2

2

 

 

1

 

 

Favites chinensis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oulastrea crispata

3